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HOME > > y15 ̎z@15-2

 15 ̎ 15-1 { @ 15-2 @ 15-3 is

 15-2@

15-2-1@̎ނƌ`

Ƃ́A݁EߋÊ鎞ɂāAEʁAoAԂp\̂ŁÅƂȂ鎞ɉāA݊Aߋ3킪܂Bꂼ̌`͎̒ʂłB
 P. ݊`Fuhavekhasl{ ߋv Q. ߋ`Fuhad { ߋv R. `Fuwillkshalllhave { ߋv

15-2-2@̗݊p@

p@wԍۂɂƂɊ鍢̂ЂƂɌ݊܂B͌{̎ɊւϔO܂ŁA݁Eߋ̋ʂKmłȂA܂Č݊IȊϔO߂ĖRƂɌ̂܂BƂ΁A
 P. û͋sZł܂v Q. û͋N狞sZł܂v
2ŁA{ł͂ƂɁuZł܂vƌݎpĂ܂Apł́A
P My uncle lives in Kyoto.
ƁA܌ݏZł邱Ƃɏœ_ČݎpA
Q My uncle has lived in Kyoto since last year.
ƋN獡܂ŁiƁjZłƂӖŁAߋiNj獡Ɏ܂őĂԂ݊p܂B܂A
 R. u͂ƂĂłv S. u͂ƂĂłv
2ŁA{͂ƂɁułvƉߋpĂ܂Apł́A
R We had a very good time last night.
Ɓuv炩ɉߋ\Ă̂ŁAߋp܂A
S We have had a very good time tonight.
̂悤Ɍ݊p܂B́uv܂IĂȂA邢͂܂̒ł邱Ƃɏœ_uĂ邩łB
܂Ap̌݊͂PɌ݂ߋ̂łƂqׂ̂ł͂ȂAߋɋNłƂ̉e⌋ʂu݁vǂȂĂ̂̂łB΁A݊Ƃ́uߋƂ̂Ȃ݁vuߋw݁vƌĂ悢ł傤B
p̌݊́Aӂ
 P. ݂Ɏ܂ł̓ Q. ߋ݂̓̏ R. ݂Ɏ܂ło S. ݂Ɏ܂ł̏Ԃp
4̗p@\܂B

(1)
݂Ɏ܂ł̓̊
u`Ă܂vu`Ƃ낾v̈ӖŁA܂܂łĂ삪݂̒OɊƂ܂B
 He has already finished his task.@iނ͂̎dI܂j gHave you finished your task yet?h gNo, not yet.h @iud͏I܂vuA܂łvj Have you already finished your task? @idÎł \\ ܂j

(2)
ߋ̓̌ʐ݂̏
u`Ă܂ͥv̈Ӗ\Aߋ̓̌ʂ܂ǂȂĂ̂Ȁ݂ԂqׂƂɗp̂ŁA\ij͂ӂ܂B
 I have lost all my property. @i͑SYȂ \\ ĂȂj He has gone out on business. @iނ͗pŏo \\ ɂ͂Ȃj The Japanese have come to enjoy a longer average life span than other countries in the world. @i{l̕ώ͐Êǂ̍Ȃ \\ ܂j

(3)
݂Ɏ܂ł̌o
u`Ƃv̈ӖŁA삻͉̂̂ߋ̂ƂłǍo݂ɐĂƂ\łB

 I have visited the factory once or twice. @i̍H͈ExK˂Ƃ܂j Have you ever learned how to run a business? @i܂łɎƌoĉw񂾂Ƃ܂j I have never seen such a delicate mechanism. @iȂɐIȋ@B͌Ƃ܂j
[1]
have gonekcomeltohave been to̎g
usƂvuƂvƁuov\ꍇɂ́AӂgoAcome͗pbep܂BgoAcomep̂́uʁv\ꍇłB
 He has gone to Bangladesh. @iނ̓oOfVsiɂ͂Ȃj\\ ʁj He has been to Bangladesh several times. @iނ͉񂩃oOfVsƂ \\ oj
[2]
have been tohave been inkatl2p@
have been toɂ́u`֍sƂvioĵقAu`֍sĂƂ낾vij̈Ӗ\܂B
 I have often been to the head office. @i{Ђɂ͂悭sƂ \\ oj I have just been to the head office. @i{ЂɍsĂƂ낾 \\ j
have been inkatĺu`ɁksālƂvioĵقAuƁ`Ɂksālvipj̈Ӗ\܂B
 Has she ever been in Paris? @iޏ̓pɁksālƂ̂ł \\ oj She has been in Paris since last April. @iޏ͋N4pɁksāl܂ \\ pj
݊`łɓӖEp@łƂ͂܂Bij╶̑O֌W画f邱ƂKvł傤B
[3]
uߋv̂ƂłG܂Auov\݊̑ɁAߋp邱Ƃ悭܂B
 I have never dreamed (that) he would have such success. I never dreamed (that) he would have such success. @iނ̐߂Ƃ͖ɂvȂjB

(4)

݂Ɏ܂ł̏Ԃ̌p
uƁ`v̈ӖŁAߋ猻݂܂ŌpAɍȂԂ\ŁA̋N_\since`i`ȗjAԂ\for`i`̊ԁjAthese`i`̊ԁjȂǂ̕傪悭ꏏɗp܂B
 He has lived here in New York since 1960. @iނ1960Nȗ̃j[[NɏZłj I have known him for ten years.@iނƂ10N̒m荇j She has been ill these past three weeks.@iޏ3TԂ̂aCj
[]
upv\݊ɗp铮́AbeAknowAloveAhateAseeAhearAunderstandȂǏԂ\ɌA\ɂ͌݊is`ihave been|ingjp܂B
 He has been in his room since his morning. @iނ͍炸ƕɂj He has been writing a report. @iނ͂ƕ񍐏Ăj

(4)

݊̒ӂׂp@
݂̗݊͌ꂩߋ̎̌ʂeɂďqׂ錾ł̂ŁAʂ炩ɉߋ\ƂƂɗp邱Ƃ͂ł܂B
(a)
̑ӂׂp@
1.
yesterdayA`agoAlast`AENȂ
 I know him from five years ago.@@ij I have known him five years ago.@@ij
AagȏforpāAI have known him for (the last) five years.iނm5NɂȂj͐B
2.
^⎌ƂĂwhen
 When did you come to know him?@@ij When have you known him?@@ij
Asince wheniǰ`pāASince whenk܂How longlhave you known him?͐B
3.
just nowiAj
Ajusti傤ǁA`΂j͌݊̕ɗp邱Ƃł܂B
 He arrived just now.@iނ͂j He has just arrived.@iނ͂傤ǓƂ낾j
(b)
݊̕łpuv\
1.
todayAthis morningkweekAmonthAyearlȂ
́A̓ETEENȂǂ܂IȂƂɂ͌݊ƂƂɗp邱Ƃł܂AIꍇɂ͉ߋƂƂɗp܂B
 I have not read the paper this morning. @i͐VǂłȂ \\ ܂ߑȌꍇj I did not read the paper this morning. @i͐Vǂ܂Ȃ \\ ߌ܂͗[̏ꍇj
2.
nowAjustAlatelykrecentlylAbeforeȂ
Aŋ߂̉ߋ̈ꎞ_\ꍇɂ͉ߋp܂B
 I have seen him quite recently.@iŋߔނɉƂj It was only recently that I saw him. @iނɉ̂͂ق̍ŋ߂̂Ƃłj
3.
͌݁Eߋɂp܂B
 I have already seen him.@iނɂڂɂ܂j They are already there.@iނ͂ɂ܂j He was already out when we arrived. @iƂɂ͂ނ͏oĂj
 Has he returned yet?@iނ͂AĂ̂j There is work yet to be done. @i܂̏サȂ΂ȂȂdj I thought it was not time to do so yet. @i܂鎞Ԃł͂ȂƎvĂj
 Have you ever visited the factory in Japan? @i{ɂ邻̍HK˂Ƃ܂j Is he ever at home?@iނ͉Ƃɂ邱Ƃ̂łj Did you ever see him while you were in Tokyo? @i݋ނɂɂȂ܂j
 I have never heard of such a foolish thing. @iȔnƂ͕ƂȂj He never spoke about his own successes. @iނ͎̐bƂ͂Ȃj
4.
sincesinceɓk߁l
ӂ݊̕ɗp܂Aߋ̂鎞_猻݂܂ł̎̑aAߋ̂łƂɒ[𔭂錻݂̏󋵂\Ƃɂ͌ݎ̕łp܂B
He has been here since five ofclock.@iނ5炸Ƃɂj
I havenft seen him since he left.
@iނĂ玄͔ނɂ͉ĂȂj
It is about forty years since the war ended.
@i푈IĂ炨悻40NɂȂ \\ aj
She is nervous of riding in a car since she was involved in that accident.
 @i ̎̂ɂĈȗޏ͎Ԃɏ̂킪Ă \\ ݂̐Sj
(c)
`have got̗p@
ł́AhaveiĂjƓӖhave gotA܂have toimust Ȃ΂ȂȂjƓӖhave got top邱Ƃ܂B
 Ifve got (I have) some rather serious news. @idȂm点܂j Have you got (Do you have) a newspaper? @iVłj Ifve got to (I have to) write a letter to him. @i͔ނɎ莆˂΂ȂȂj

15-2-3@ߋ̗p@

݁F݊ ߋFߋ
ƂĂ悢ł傤B

(1)
ߋ̂鎞܂ł̓̊
ӂɂȂߋ傪Oɗp܂BȂ̂ƂĂwhenAafterAbeforeAtillkuntillȂǂ̐ڑ̂قA֌W㖼E֌WȂǂ܂B
 When I telephoned him, he had already left the office. @idbƂAނ͂ЂoĂ܂Ăj He had left the office before I telephoned him. @idbȂɁAނ͉ЂoĂ܂Ăj After he had left the office, I telephoned him. @iނЂoĂ܂ƁAނɓdbj

(2)
ߋ̂鎞ɂAȑO̓̌
 I bought a new cassette player, as I had broken the old one. @iÂ̂󂵂Ă܂̂ŁAVJZbgv[𔃂j It was one of the greatest things that he had ever achieved. @i͔ނƐђAłẑ̈łj

(3)
ߋ̂鎞܂ł̌o
I did not know what to do, because I had never met with such an accident.
@îɑƂȂ̂ŁAǂĂ悢킩Ȃj
I knew the neighborhood very well, for I had often been there.
 @i ɂ͋ߕӂ̂Ƃ͂悭킩ĂÂƂ܂ŉxsƂłj

(4)
ߋ̂鎞܂ł̏Ԃ̌p
 He had been sick in bed for a week, when I went to see him. @iK˂čsAނ͈TԂOaCŏɉ炵Ăj In 1985 he had been at work (for) twenty years. @i1985Nɂ́Aނ͎dɂ20NɂȂĂj
Auv̌p\Ƃɂ́Aߋis`ihad been { |ingjp܂B
 He fell ill last week. He had been working too hard. @iނ͐TaCɂȂB܂œĂłj

(5)
Ԑژb@E@ɂp@
ژb@̔`B݊EߋEߋ̂Ƃ́AԐژb@ł͂üvv̊֌WŉߋɂȂ܂B
܂@ŁAߋɂĎȂƂɑ΂]qׂꍇɂ͂΂Ήߋ`p܂B
 He said to me, gI have never been transferred to overseas service.h He told me that he had never been transferred to overseas service. @iނ͊CO]΂𖽂ꂽƂ͂ȂƎɌj I wish I had taken measures a little earlier. @ik̎lłĂ΂悩̂Ɂj

(6)
ߋ̒ӂׂp@
ߋ͉ߋ̂鎞ɂāAȑOɍsꂽƂɂďqׂ錾łAandbeforeAafterȂǏ͂肵Ăꍇɂ́Aߋ`̑ɉߋ`p邱Ƃł܂B
AƂɋNƂɏqׂꍇ́AȑO͉̓ߋ`p܂B
 I got up at six, ate breakfast at seven, and left home at eight. @i6ɋNA7ɂ͒HƂA8ɉƂoj
 I drew my money from the bank and gave it to him. @i͋saoAނɗ^j I gave him my money (which) I had drawn from the bank. @i͋soނɗ^jyz

15-2-4@̗p@

uwillkshalllhave { ߋv̌`𖢗`Ƃ܂B
́Aû鎞ɂāÅEʁAoAԂ̌pv\܂B܂薢Ɗ2тp@łƂ܂B
ȂAwillAshall̗p@͒P̗p@ɏ܂B

(1)
̂鎞܂ł̓̊
 When I get to the station, the train will have already left. @iwɂɂ́AԂ͏oĂ܂Ă邾낤j I will have finished all the work by the time you come back. @iȂA܂łɂ́A͎dS܂Ă邾낤j
[]
ł́ÄӖ̖͂ނP̂قpĂ܂B
 I will finish all the work by the time you come back.

(2)
̂鎞ɂ铮̌
 He will have gone when you return. @iȂAĂ邱ɂ́Aނ͍sĂ܂Ă邾낤j This town will have been completely changed in a few years. @i2E3N̂ɂ̒ςĂ邾낤j

(3)
̂鎞܂ł̌o
 I am going to visit China next spring, and then I will have been there three times.@iNK₷邪A3sƂɂȂj How often will he have won the championship if he wins again? @i܂ƁAނ͉DƂɂȂ̂낤j

(4)
̂鎞܂ł̏Ԃ̌p
 Next November we will have been married for thirty years. @i11Ō30NɂȂj They will have lived here for more than twenty years by the end of this year. @iN̕ɂȂƁAޓ20NȏɏZł邱ƂɂȂ낤j
[]
whenAifAafterAtillkuntillAas soon asȂǂ̐ڑł͂܂鎞\߂̒ł́ÂɌ݊܂͉ߋp܂B
 You can go if you have finished the work. @idς܂Ă낵j I asked him to wait tillkuntillI had exchanged my American money into Japanese yen. @iĉ݂{~ɗւ܂ő҂Ă悤ނɗ񂾁j

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